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Importantly, changes in coherence between striatum and amygdala local field potentials (LFPs) were found to couple these structures during interval estimation within the lower range of the theta rhythm (3–6 Hz).Strikingly, we also show that a change to the CS–US time interval results in long-term changes in cortico-striatal synaptic efficacy under the control of the amygdala.

In associative learning, subjects not only learn the association but also the temporal contingencies between the stimuli.

Pavlovian aversive conditioning is one of the most widely used learning paradigms in neuroscience and has advanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms of associative learning.

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Pavlovian aversive conditioning requires learning of the association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned, aversive stimulus (US) but also involves encoding the time interval between the two stimuli.

In this paradigm, a neutral stimulus, the conditioned stimulus (CS), acquires a predictive value for an unconditioned aversive stimulus (US) that has an inherent value.

The emergence of behavioural and physiological correlates of temporal expectancy of the US during learning, observed in humans and other animals, demonstrates that subjects encode the time interval between the two stimuli.

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To date, the most compelling electrophysiological evidence come from two studies showing that firing of neuronal ensembles in the dorsal striatum follows the behaviourally measured temporal expectancy of food availability.

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